Reported Speech

Reported Speech adalah Kalimat Laporan (Kalimat tak langsung)

Indirect Speech

Ketika kita menggunakan reported speech, tenses biasanya berubah karena saat kita melaporkan sesuatu, kejadian yang sebenarnya sudah terjadi di masa yang lalu.

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

“I’m going to the cinema”, he said.

He said he was going to the cinema.

Perubahan Tenses

Perhatikan perubahan tenses berikut ini:

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Present simple
She said, “It’s cold.”

Past simple
She said it was cold.

Present continuous
She said, “I’m teaching English online.”

Past continuous
She said she was teaching English online.

Present perfect simple
She said, “I’ve been on the web since 1999.”

Past perfect simple
She said she had been on the web since 1999.

Present perfect continuous
She said, “I’ve been teaching English for seven years.”

Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching English for seven years.

Past simple
She said, “I taught online yesterday.”

Past perfect
She said she had taught online yesterday.

Past continuous
She said, “I was teaching earlier.”

Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching earlier.

Past perfect
She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.”

Past perfect
NO CHANGE – She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.

Past perfect continuous
She said, “I’d already been teaching for five minutes.”

Past perfect continuous
NO CHANGE – She said she’d already been teaching for five minutes.

Bentuk Modals biasanya:

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

will
She said, “I’ll teach English online tomorrow.”

would
She said she would teach English online tomorrow.

can
She said, “I can teach English online.”

could
She said she could teach English online.

must
She said, “I must have a computer to teach English online.”

had to
She said she had to have a computer to teach English online.

shall
She said, “What shall we learn today?”

should
She asked what we should learn today.

may
She said, “May I open a new browser?”

might
She asked if she might open a new browser.

Catatan: tidak ada perubahan untuk could, would, should, might dan ought to.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

“I’m might go to the cinema”, he said.

He said he might go to the cinema.

Kita bisa juga menggunakan present tense dalam reported speech jika kita ingin melaporkan bahwa yang kita laporkan itu adalah kenyataan, misalnya nama orang, dll.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

“My name is Lynne”, she said.

She said her name was Lynne.

atau

She said her name is Lynne.

Atau kita bisa juga menggunakan present tense untuk melaporkan kegiatan di masa yang akan datang.

Direct speech (exact quote)

Indirect speech (not exact)

“Next week’s lesson is on reported speech “, she said.

She said next week’s lesson is on reported speech.

Perubahan Waktu

Perhatikan perubahan waktu berikut:

Hari ini

+ 24 jam  - Indirect speech

“Today’s lesson is on presentations.”

She said yesterday’s lesson was on presentations.

 

Perubahan waktu jika dilaporkan ddi hari yang berbeda

this (evening)

that (evening)

today

yesterday …

these (days)

those (days)

now

then

(a week) ago

(a week) before

last weekend

the weekend before last / the previous weekend

here

there

next (week)

the following (week)

tomorrow

the next/following day

Dalam Reported Speech, keterangan tempat juga mengalami perubahan.

Contoh:-

At work

At home

“How long have you worked here?”

She asked me how long I’d worked there.

Perubahan Pronoun

Dalam reported speech, pronoun sering berubah.

Contoh:

Me

You

I teach English online.”

She said she teaches English online.

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