Subjunctives

Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian

Struktur Subjunctive

be (past)

be (present)

Kata kerja lain (past & present)

I were
you were
he, she, it were
we were
you were
they were

I be
you be
he, she, it be
we be
you be
they be

I work
you work
he, she, it work
we work
you work
they work

Penggunaan Subjunctive

Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang:

  • Inginkan agar terjadi
  • Harapkan akan terjadi
  • Membayangkan akan terjadi

Contoh:

  • The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
  • It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
  • If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.

Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:

  • Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that
  • Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that

Contoh:

  • The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
  • The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
  • It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
  • It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.

Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:

  • Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
  • Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
  • Present: It is essential that she be present.
  • Past: It was essential that she be present.

Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti “was” setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:

  • If I were you, I would ask her.
  • Suppose she were here. What would you say?

Mengapa kita menggunakan “I were”, “he were”?

Kita sering mendengar orang berkata “if I were you, I would go” atau “if he were here, he would tell you”. Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak melihat Past Tense”. Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk “to be” nya. Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:

  • if
  • as if
  • wish
  • suppose

Formal

(The were form is correct at all times.)

Informal

(The was form is possible in informal, familiar conversation.)

If I were younger, I would go.

If I was younger, I would go.

If he weren’t so mean, he would buy one for me.

If he wasn’t so mean, he would buy one for me.

I wish I weren’t so slow!

I wish I wasn’t so slow!

I wish it were longer.

I wish it was longer.

It’s not as if I were ugly.

It’s not as if I was ugly.

She acts as if she were Queen.

She acts as if she was Queen.

If I were you, I should tell her.

Note: We do not normally say “if I was you”, even in familiar conversation.

Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh:

  • Long live the King!
  • God bless America!
  • Heaven forbid!
  • Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
  • Come what may, I will never forget you.
  • We are all citizens of the world, as it were.

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